ヒイラギ【柊, 疼木】

1. Osmanthus heterophyllus, holly olive
2. Ilex aquifolium, common holly, English holly
3. Ilex opaca, American holly
4. Leiognathus nuchalis (a fish)


1. Osmanthus heterophyllus, holly olive

■ An evergreen tree from family Oleaceae (モクセイ科) with leathery leaves, sharply serrated when young. It bears white, fragrant flowers in autumn, followed in spring by purple-black fruits. The spiky leaves are said to have powers to dispel demons and are traditionally hung above the doorway as a talisman on the night of 節分(せつぶん).

□ The ヒイラギ plant appears to be known in English-speaking botanical circles as "holly olive". Some references of Japanese origin give the English name of this plant as "Japanese holly", but in English-speaking countries, that name refers to another Japanese plant, Ilex crenata. The Japanese name of Ilex crenata is イヌツゲ, but it is sometimes mistakenly called ツゲ (which really is the Japanese name for Buxus microphylla var. japonica, Japanese boxwood).


2. Ilex aquifolium, common holly, English holly

3. Ilex opaca, American holly

■ These closely-related evergreen trees of the family Aquifoliaceae (モチノキ科) share shiny, spiky leaves and red berries which persist into winter and are valued as Christmas decorations. The correct Japanese names are セイヨウヒイラギ for Ilex aquifolium and アメリカヒイラギ for Ilex opaca, but these plants (particularly I. aquifolium) are also commonly referred to as ヒイラギ in Japan.

□ Other plants with ヒイラギ in name:
ヒイラギナンテン Mahonia japonica (Japanese Mahonia)
ヒイラギモクセイ Osmanthus x fortunei (Fortune's Osmanthus )

◇ きょうの花・「ヒイラギ」 (10月22日)
刺のある葉が魔除けのまじないになるというヒイラギ、この枝に鰯の頭を刺して 節分に門口に立てる風習がありますが、いまがちょうど花の時期です。ヒイラギ に匂いのよい花が咲くということ、ご存じない方が多いかと思いますので、ご 紹介しておきます。
おなじモクセイ科のキンモクセイはいわば官能的な華やかな 香りですが、ヒイラギは似たような匂いながら、どこか清楚で心の落ち着く感じ がします。
(Web, Nov 2000. The plant discussed here is the true ヒイラギ.)

ヒイラギ;柊
Holly
クリスマス の飾りとして愛用されているのは、ヒイラギを置いてないでしょう。つややかな緑の葉、かわいい赤い実は、伝統的に家の飾り付けなどに使われてきました。ここでは、その象徴的な意味と、いろいろなヒイラギについて探ってみます。
(Web, Nov 2000. Here, association with Christmas and the mention of red berries clearly indicate that the subject is a holly, either English or American.)

Compare Osmanthus heterophyllus, Ilex aquifolium and Ilex opaca here:

Leaves:
- Osmanthus heterophyllus
- Ilex aquifolium
- Ilex opaca

Fruits:
- Osmanthus heterophyllus
- Ilex aquifolium
- Ilex opaca


4. Leiognathus nuchalis

■ A small, leaf-shaped coastal fish, which derives its name from the ヒイラギ plant because of the serrated fins and sharp spines behind the gills. It is often regarded as 外道(げどう), a fish an angler gets while trying for other, larger fish, though it is eaten in some parts of Japan. Also called ギチ, ネコクワズ, or ネコゴロシ.

The common English name for Leignathus in general is ponyfish or slipmouth.


This entry was created by Yuno Hanlon.


Created 2000-11-17.


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